cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, modifiable risk factors, obesity


Objective: Assess the effect of intensive clinical and educational interventions aimed at reducing risk factors for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), implemented by clinical pharmacists, on modifying risk factors in targeted patients at high risk for CVD.

Design: Patients with at least two risk factors for CHD were identified at two clinics by conducting a pre-intervention survey and were monitored over a period of 6 months with follow up conversations conducted every 4 weeks by phone and at subsequent physician visits. A post-intervention survey was conducted at the end of the study period to detect modified risk factors.

Setting: The Jefferson County Public Health Department (JCHD)

Participants: We followed a total of 47 patients over 6 months. The average age at baseline was 51 years old and 80% of the participants were female. The baseline average number of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors was 3.7.

Measurements: We assessed total number of CVD risk factors, smoking behavior, blood pressure, LDL, A1C, weight, and level of physical activity (major modifiable risk factors by the American Heart Association).

Results: Over a 6 month follow-up of 47 patients, statistically significant reductions occurred in total number of CVD risk factors, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and A1C. Reductions also occurred in LDL level, weight, and changes in smoking behavior and physical activity were identified.

Conclusions: Results showed that increased patient counseling on adherence and lifestyle changes along with increased disease state monitoring and medication adjustment led by a clinical pharmacist can decrease risk factors in patients with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease.