Impact of Ambulatory Care Pharmacist-Led Diabetes Mellitus Management on Hemoglobin A1c Values Among Patients With Diabetes in a Primary Care Clinic Over Two Years

  • Insaf Mohammad Wayne State University Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
  • Julie George Beaumont Research Institute, Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak
  • Jonathan Zimmerman Department of Internal Medicine, Beaumont Hospital, Dearborn
  • Ruaa Elteriefi Department of Internal Medicine, Beaumont Hospital, Dearborn
Keywords: diabetes, ambulatory care, pharmacist, pharmacy, interprofessional


Background: Previous evaluation in the literature of ambulatory care pharmacist management on glycosylated hemoglobin (HgbA1c) has been positive, but often limited to 6 to 12 months of follow up. 

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of an ambulatory care pharmacist on HgbA1c among patients with diabetes in a primary care clinic over two years.

Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted on patients with type 2 diabetes managed by the ambulatory care pharmacist. Patients with at least one HgbA1c value ≥7% in the two-year pre-intervention period were included. The primary outcome was the change in mean HgbA1c from baseline to two years post-intervention. The secondary outcome was the change in mean of all HgbA1c values over two years pre-intervention compared to two years post-intervention.

Results: Data for 116 patients was analyzed two years prior to and two years after ambulatory care pharmacist service initiation. The mean HgbA1c at baseline pre-intervention was 8.8% compared to a mean HgbA1c of 7.8% two years post-intervention. A total of 12.9% of patients (n=15) had a baseline HgbA1c of less than 7% pre-intervention, compared to 42.2% of patients (n=49) two years post-intervention (p<0.001). The overall mean HgbA1c was 8.8% in the two-year pre-intervention period and 8.2% in the two-year post-intervention period (p<0.001). Among patients with an overall mean HgbA1c ≥8% in the pre-intervention period, the mean HgbA1c was 9.8% pre-intervention and 8.7% post-intervention.

Conclusion: Ambulatory care pharmacist interventions demonstrated a significant impact on HgbA1c reduction over two years of follow up.


Download data is not yet available.
Received 2022-04-22
Accepted 2022-05-24
Published 2022-06-08
Pharmacy Practice & Practice-Based Research