A Pharmacist-Driven Education and Intervention Program that Improves Outcomes for Hypertensive Patients
Purpose: Uncontrolled hypertension is serious and may lead to severe cardiovascular events and death. To better educate and empower patients to meet their blood pressure (BP) management goals, a large, integrated academic healthcare system implemented the Blood Pressure Goals Achievement Program (BPGAP), a longitudinal intervention embedding community pharmacists within healthcare teams. This study evaluated BPGAP on its ability to promote patient BP management goals.
Methods: A pre-/post-intervention analysis was conducted whereby BP measurements were evaluated longitudinally within acuity groups determined by k-means clustering. Generalized linear mixed models evaluated trends in BP by time period, and proportions of patients meeting BP management goals (<140/90 mmHg) were assessed in relation to BPGAP enrollment date.
Results: There were 5,125 patients who were clustered into Uncontrolled, Borderline, and Controlled blood pressure groups; 2,108 patients had BP measurements across 4 time periods before and after BPGAP enrollment. Groups differed by patient age, sex, and other demographics (p<0.0001). Patients in the Uncontrolled and Borderline BP clusters demonstrated significant BP decreases after BPGAP enrollment, continuing at least to 1-year post-intervention; Controlled cluster patients maintained BPs throughout the study period. The proportion of patients with controlled BPs increased from 56% immediately pre-BPGAP to 74% in the 3- to 6-months following enrollment.
Conclusion: BPGAP is effective at helping patients achieve their BP management goals. Pharmacists may play a key role in hypertension control through measuring BPs and including updates and recommendations in the electronic health record, educating patients, and engaging in communication with healthcare teams.
Copyright (c) 2022 Alicia L. Zagel, PhD, MPH, Adam Rhodes, MS, Jeri Nowak, PharmD, BCPS, Amanda R. Brummel PharmD, BCACP
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