Multiple Bosses: Challenges and suggestions to improve organizational environments in academic settings.

  • Agnes Ann Feemster University of Maryland School of Pharmacy
  • T. Joseph Mattingly, II University of Maryland School of Pharmacy
Keywords: management, education, pharmacy practice, organizational structure


Practice faculty members are often supervised by more than one individual, creating a reporting structure that mirrors a matrix organization. They are tasked with balancing administrative and teaching responsibilities established by the school with expectations of maintaining a pharmacy practice site. A matrix reporting structure offers opportunities for enhanced development, but risks of additional stress from the organizational complexity must be mitigated to reduce job dissatisfaction. Frequent and consistent communication, mutual agreement and alignment of expectations and priorities, and the ability to manage conflict and adapt to change will aid pharmacy practice faculty in managing the relationship between their primary employer (the school) and the contracted entity.

Conflict of Interest

We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received), employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.


Type: Original Research


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Received 2016-02-26
Published 2016-06-29
Pharmacy Practice & Practice-Based Research