Impact of Live Training on Medication Errors in a Community-Based Pharmacy Setting

  • Morgan Grant Kroger Health
  • Jaimie Remines Kroger Health
  • Pramit Nadpara Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy
  • Jean-Venable Goode Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy
Keywords: medication errors, live session, patient safety, community pharmacy


Objective: To compare community-based pharmacy medication errors before and after a one-hour live interactive training session for both pharmacists and technicians.

Methods: A one group pre-post intervention design study was conducted in 20 community-based pharmacies in a district of a large national community pharmacy chain.  A one-hour live, interactive session was developed based on incident reports and medication error trends including medication error definition, ways in which medication errors occur, strategies for mitigating errors, information about human error, and methods and habits to improve patient safety. At least 50% of full-time staff for each of the 20 pharmacies were required to attend a training session between December 1, 2017-January 15, 2018. Participants completed a demographics survey documenting gender, age, credentials, number of years of experience, and years of service with the company. Pharmacies were categorized as low, medium or high volume based on prescription count. Medication errors were compared six months pre- and post-live education session. Data were analyzed using SAS version 9.4.

Results:   One hundred and thirty- five errors and 111 errors were reported pre-and post-live training (mean 6.85 and 5.55, p < 0.301), respectively.  Nine pharmacies were low, eight medium, and three high volume with the mean number of medication errors reported pre- and post-live training; low 4.33 vs 4.11 p<0.478, medium 9.37 vs 6.87 p<0.443, and high 7.66 vs 6.33 p<0.593, respectively. Sixty pharmacy staff (34 pharmacists, 26 technicians) attended one of the live training sessions; 73% female; most frequently reported age range 35-50 years; 23  Doctor of Pharmacy, 11  Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy, and 26 Certified Technician; and average number of years’ experience was 13.6 and average service with the company was 8.6 years.

Conclusions: A live training session for both pharmacists and technicians did not significantly decrease medication errors, but could be incorporated as an element of a medication safety program. It should be considered for implementation in other districts of this large national pharmacy chain as a part of an improved patient safety effort. 


Article Type: Original Research


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Author Biographies

Pramit Nadpara, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy

Assistant Professor

Jean-Venable Goode, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy

Professor and Director, PGY1 Community-Based Pharmacy Residency Program

Received 2020-05-18
Accepted 2020-07-13
Published 2020-08-28
Pharmacy Practice & Practice-Based Research