The Impact of Pharmacist-delivered Motivational Interviewing on Chronic Kidney Disease Identification and Management in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Low Socioeconomic Status

  • Keri Lillian DePatis Palm Beach Atlantic University, Gregory School of Pharmacy
  • Catherine Harrington Palm Beach Atlantic University, Gregory School of Pharmacy
Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, Ambulatory Care, Pharmacist, Diabetes, Screening, Microalbuminuria, Nephropathy


Purpose: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complication among patients with diabetes mellitus; however, noncompliance with the recommended annual screening is common. Increased screening among high-risk patients is important to identify the early stages CKD, potentially resulting in earlier treatment, slower progression, fewer complications, and decreased healthcare expenditures. Motivational interviewing (MI) has previously been shown to be effective for various behaviors, such as smoking cessation and cholesterol level control. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacist-delivered MI compared to typical education (TE) methods in increasing CKD screening and subsequent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) initiation in high-risk patient populations.

Methods: Pharmacists screened diabetic patients within their chronic disease management clinic to identify patients that are at high-risk for CKD, indicated by a score of 4 or greater on the validated SCORED screening tool. High-risk patients were randomized to one of four groups to receive either one or two face-to-face education sessions from a pharmacist or student pharmacist using either MI or TE methods. Patients were then given the option to have their urine tested with a dipstick to detect albumin and creatinine, provided at no cost. The primary outcome was to determine the rate of urinary albumin testing, and the secondary outcome was to determine the rate of ACE-I or ARB initiation in patients found to have albuminuria.

Results: There were no significant differences in the rates of urinary albumin screening (87% in TE vs. 100% in MI, P = 0.4828) or subsequent ACE-I/ARB initiation (100% in TE and 50% in MI, P = 1.000) between education groups. Of the high-risk patients who underwent urinary albumin screening, 54% (n=15) were found to have proteinuria

Conclusions: While it appears that MI does not impact patient acceptance rates of microalbuminuria screening and ACE-I/ARB initiation, this study demonstrates the feasibility of pharmacist-delivered microalbuminuria screening in patients at high-risk for CKD in the outpatient setting.


Article Type: Practice-Based Research


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Received 2019-07-08
Accepted 2019-10-22
Published 2019-11-18
Practice-Based Research