Evaluate Factors Influencing Depression in Baghdad: Using Deck-Depression Inventory

  • Ali Azeez Ali Al-Jumaili The University of Iowa College of Pharmacy, Iowa, USA and University of Baghdad College of Pharmacy, Baghdad, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4691-0280
  • Sahar B. Aljuboori University College of Al-Rafidian Department of Pharmacy, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Ammar A. Razzak Mahmood Kubba University of Baghdad College of Pharmacy, Baghdad, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4915-417X
  • Rawaa Fathel University College of Al-Rafidain Department of Pharmacy, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Haneen Talab University College of Al-Rafidain Department of Pharmacy, Baghad, Iraq


Objective: This study goal was to screen participants from different settings in Baghdad for depression using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale and identify factors influencing the levels of depression.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included a convenience sample of 313 people from four settings (teaching hospital, college of medicine, college of pharmacy, and high school) in Baghdad, Iraq. The participants were screened using paper survey relying on the BDI scale during spring 2018. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we measured the association between depression scores and six participant factors.

Results: The overall prevalence of depression in our sample was 57.2%. Female participants had higher BDI scores (depression symptoms) than male participants.  Among those with depression, the majority (73.7%) had mild or moderate degree of depression. In terms of the cut-off scores, 42.8 % scored in the normal range, 20.4 % in the mild range, 7.0 % in the borderline range, 14.7 % in the moderate range, 10.5 % in the severe range and 4.5 % in the very severe range depression. Approximately 63% of the participants had sort of suicidal thoughts. The regression analysis showed significant (P-value < 0.05) association between having higher scores of depression symptoms and the presence of chronic disease(s), recent family loss, young age and female gender.

Conclusions: In our findings, depression was quite prevalent among people in Iraq.  The study demonstrates the importance of broad screening and social/psychiatric counseling of young population. Iraqi healthcare professionals should structure specific actions for patients with chronic diseases to minimize their depression symptoms.


Article Type: Orignal Research


Download data is not yet available.
Received 2019-05-16
Accepted 2019-06-11
Published 2019-07-22
Practice-Based Research