INNOVATIONS in pharmacy Inspiring Inquiry and Improvement in Pharmacy Practice, Education, and Policy. A quarterly publication featuring case studies, clinical experiences, commentaries, idea papers, original research, review articles, and student projects that focus on leading edge, novel ideas for improving, modernizing, and advancing pharmacy practice, education, and policy. INNOVATIONS in pharmacy. University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing en-US INNOVATIONS in pharmacy 2155-0417 <p>Copyright of content published in <em>INNOVATIONS in pharmacy</em>&nbsp;belongs to the author(s).</p> Prevalence and Impact of Workplace Bullying among Pharmacy Practice Faculty in the United States <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To identify the prevalence and impact of workplace bullying among pharmacy practice faculty in the United States.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Members of the Pharmacy Practice section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy were invited to complete an online survey about the frequency with which they experienced negative workplace behaviors in the communication, humiliation, manipulation, discrimination, and violence domains as well as workplace bullying in the previous 12 months. Independent t-tests and chi-squared tests were used to investigate associations between workplace bullying and pharmacy practice faculty demographic and employment characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Participants (n=256) reported a median of 6 negative behaviors in the workplace, most often in the communication and humiliation domains. A total of 50 (19.5%) reported experiencing workplace bullying. The most common impacts of workplace bullying included increasing their stress level (n=44/49, 89.8%), negative effects on their emotional health (n=42/49, 85.7%), and job dissatisfaction (n=40/49, 81.6%). Female participants more frequently reported workplace bullying (n=43/196, 21.9%) compared to male participants (n=4/56, 7.1%; p=0.012). Individuals who identified as white were less likely to report workplace bullying (n=40/233, 17.2%) compared to individuals of all other races (n=8/19, 42.1%; p=0.008).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most pharmacy practice faculty reported experiencing some degree of negative workplace behaviors during the past 12 months. Additional strategies are needed to create inclusive work environments with transparent, actionable policies when workplace bullying occurs.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Treatment of human subjects: </strong>IRB exemption granted</p> Kristin Klein Emma Dittmar Sarah Vordenberg Copyright (c) 2023 Kristin C. Klein, Emma Dittmar, Sarah E. Vordenberg 2023-08-28 2023-08-28 14 3 1 1 10.24926/iip.v14i3.5450 Management of Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) Services by Community Pharmacists in Osun State Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Point-of-care testing (POCT) provides important opportunity for community pharmacists to participate in oriented primary patient care. Effective management of these services is required to deliver their currently- underexploited benefits.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Assessed attitudes and practice, examined management functions deployed and identified factors affecting provision of POCTs by community pharmacists.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A questionnaire-guided cross-sectional survey of 146 randomly-selected community pharmacists was conducted in Osun State Southwestern Nigeria. Study variables were measured on 5-point Likert scales with weighted averages, median scores and ranks used to present item performances. Interquartile ranges were computed to categorize practice scores. Chi square statistic was used to examine association of variables. ANOVA and 2-sample t-test were used to compare means.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A response rate of 94.5% was achieved. Respondents had a positive attitude (MWA 3.75) towards provision of POCTs as core component of their practice (MWA 4.58) with potential to contribute significantly to profitability (MWA 4.31). Respondents’ median practice score was 3.01(moderate practice) with blood pressure screening (4.77), weight measurement (4.45), and blood glucose screening (4.18) as leading POCTs, while cervical cancer screening (1.09) was least practiced. Management of POCTs was fair (MWA 3.33) with organisation of work as pre-eminent domain (MWA 3.66). Management practices were significantly associated with almost all demographic variables (p&lt; .05). Positive public perception of pharmacists’ roles (MWA 4.31) and their improving clinical skills (MWA 4.01) were the leading enablers while the lack of enabling policy framework (MWA 3.80) and poor health information backbone (MWA 3.78) were major challenges to routine adoption of POCTs by respondents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The community pharmacists had positive attitude and moderate practice of POCTs. Management of these services was fair. Improving public perception of pharmacists should be exploited while enabling legal and health information systems should be provided to drive routine adoption of POCTs.</p> Maduabuchi Romanus Ihekoronye Oore-Ofe Deborah Akande Kanayo Patrick Osemene Copyright (c) 2023 Maduabuchi Ihekoronye Ph.D., Oore-Ofe Deborah Akande, Kanayo Patrick Osemene Ph.D 2023-09-13 2023-09-13 14 3 4 4 10.24926/iip.v14i3.5576 Identifying Services Provided in Community Pharmacy Practice Settings <p><em>Background</em>: To better address their patients’ needs, community pharmacists are expanding from their traditional role of dispensing to managing medications and providing other care.</p> <p><em>Objective</em>: This study characterized services reported by pharmacists practicing in community pharmacy settings in the 2019 National Pharmacist Workforce Study (NPWS).</p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The 2019 NPWS was conducted via an online survey. E-mails containing survey links were sent to a systematic random sample of 96,110 U.S. pharmacists. The survey allowed tailoring of questions related to specific practice settings and for respondents in community pharmacies included reporting on delivery of twelve services. Other descriptive characteristic questions included pharmacy type, staffing, monitoring activities, self-reported workload, and respondent demographics. An index was created by summing the number of yes responses for the service questions. This index served as the dependent variable in an ordinary least squares regression examining the association of work setting chacateristics with the index.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Usable responses were received from 2,150 community pharmacists. The top four services were: administer vaccines (91.1%), patient medication assistance program (83.7%), naloxone dispensing (72.8%) and medication synchronization (67.2%). The regression model was significant, with supermarket pharmacies having a higher service index than large chains. Elevated service index scores were associated with more technicians on duty, CPESN participation, direct communication with primary care providers, practicing under a CPA and&nbsp; monitoring activities.</p> <p><em>Conclusions</em>: Pharmacy operational characteristics were important influences on the delivery of services in community pharmacies. These findings can help inform the continuing transformation of community pharmacy practice.</p> Courtney Schenkelberg Arwa Al-Khatib Brianne Bakken Vibhuti Arya Caroline Gaither David Kreling David Mott Jon Schommer Matthew Witry William Doucette Copyright (c) 2023 Courtney Schenkelberg, Arwa Al-Khatib, Brianne Bakken, Vibhuti Arya, Caroline Gaither, David Kreling, David Mott, Jon Schommer, Matthew Witry, William Doucette 2023-09-07 2023-09-07 14 3 2 2 10.24926/iip.v14i3.5543 Uptake and Utilization of the COVID-19 Alert App within a University Community in New York <p>The rapid onset of the COVID-19 pandemic elicited a swift response to control the virus ubiquitous within the United States. Expanded telehealth and health informatics became critical components of the pandemic response. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of the COVID-19 New York (NY) Alert App and identify the perceived benefits and limitations of the App.&nbsp;A cross-sectional design was employed to collect data by using questionnaires with closed-ended questions. The survey was developed and administered during March through April 2021. The study found that the highest rated benefit from using the COVID-19 NY Alert App was receiving&nbsp;alerts about being in close proximity to individuals diagnosed with COVID-19. Results showed that ineffective (insufficient and inappropriate) usage was the highest rated potential challenge for using the App. Study subjects were likely to download this Alert App when they perceived more benefits and less barriers to using the App. Findings from this study can help improve utilization of the App and inform development of similar tele-education tools. The study illuminated considerations for health information applications in scaling-up traditional COVID-19 tracing efforts and may facilitate the design of similar emergency preparedness health technology.&nbsp;</p> Taehwan Park Deion Awah Nancy Doshi Chimene Castor Joseph Ravenell Yolene Gousse Copyright (c) 2023 Taehwan Park, Deion Awah, Nancy Doshi , Chimene Castor, Joseph Ravenell, Yolene Gousse 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 14 3 5 5 10.24926/iip.v14i3.5488 Assessing a Medication Safety and Disposal Educational Program using the Health Belief Model <p><strong>Background: </strong>Self-medication practices continue to grow due to reclassification of prescription to OTC status and self-care information on the internet, however unintended injuries and inappropriate use of medications continue to challenge healthcare providers during the provision of patient care.&nbsp; Pharmacists have an integral role in pharmacovigilance and patient education activities to ensure safe medication use, storage, and disposal practices.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:&nbsp; </strong>The objective of this medication safety and disposal educational program was to provide comprehensive informational support to the community coupled with an assessment using the Health Belief Model (HBM) to gauge participants’ perceived behavior change.</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp; </strong>The HBM was selected to assess the understanding of the community members' benefits and barriers to safe medication practices.&nbsp; The HBM posits that health behaviors are influenced by perceptions of a diseases’ severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers to health practices, perceived benefits of health practices, self-efficacy, and cues to action.&nbsp; An 8 item pre/post survey following the HBM constructs was developed which used a 5 point Likert scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>A total of 25 senior participants attended the educational program.&nbsp; Twenty-three pre/post surveys were completed (RR=92%).&nbsp; Five items revealed a statistically significant change from pre to post-educational content including understanding risk of herbal/OTC products (p=0.021), improved awareness of medication disposal methods (p=0.044), comprehension of OTC ‘Drug Facts’ information (p=0.004), understanding OTC label information to prevent medication interactions and side effects (p=0.008), and routinely reviewing expiration dates on medications and disposing of these properly (p=0.019).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>This study suggests a comprehensive approach which covers a wide range of medication safety topics and disposal practices can successfully improve the knowledge and skill of community participants and potentially improve medication harm reduction practices.</p> Oliver Frenzel Jayme Steig Alyssa Hodges Copyright (c) 2023 Oliver Frenzel, Jayme Steig, Alyssa Hodges 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 14 3 6 6 10.24926/iip.v14i3.5546 Rejecting False Claims from Markov Simulations in Alzheimer's Disease <p>There is no abstract as this is a letter</p> Paul Langley Copyright (c) 2023 Paul Langley 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 14 3 7 7 10.24926/iip.v14i3.5701 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hypothetical Gene Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease: A Markov Simulation Analysis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Alzheimer’s disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative condition causing significant health and economic burden. With limited therapeutic options, clinical trials have been investigating Alzheimer’s disease treatment using more novel approaches, including gene therapy. However, there is limited evidence on the cost-effectiveness of such treatments.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This research aims to explore the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical gene therapy for patients with Alzheimer’s disease at varying degrees of severity.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A Markov model with a 20-year time horizon was constructed for simulated cohorts with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease, assigned to receive either standard of care or a one-time gene therapy administration. Varying costs of care due to disease severity and treatment efficacy were utilized to determine the effect of those variables at different willingness-to-pay thresholds.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Under the initial assumption that the hypothetical gene therapy grants a 30% risk reduction in disease progression and entry into institutional care, the maximum cost-effective price for gene therapy is $141,126 per treatment using the threshold of $150,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). By increasing the treatment effectiveness to 50%, cost-effective price nearly doubled at each willingness-to-pay threshold (e.g., $260,902 at the $150,000/QALY threshold).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Despite being cost-effective at a very high price, the hypothetical gene therapy for AD would still need to be priced considerably lower than other approved gene therapies on the market. Thus, a comprehensive pharmacoeconomic assessment remains critical in pricing innovative therapy and determining coverage for patients in need.</p> Thuy Chinh Kieu Kevin Look Copyright (c) 2023 Thuy Chinh Kieu, Kevin Look 2023-09-13 2023-09-13 14 3 3 3 10.24926/iip.v14i3.5500