Canine hip dysplasia: Pathogenesis, phenotypic scoring, and genetics
Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a painful, incurable disease affecting over 50% of domesticated dogs, with a higher prevalence occurring in purebreds. All canines are born with normal hips, but around week three, development of hip dysplasia begins in dogs with a genetic predisposition to the disorder. Current methods used for diagnosing CHD are based on phenotype, using BVA or OFA scores, and EBVs. These methods are biased and produce false positive and negative results; they also have not reduced the occurrence of CHD because environmental factors of diet and exercise contribute to CHD, along with genetics. Three significant genetic mutations that occur in dogs with hip dysplasia are carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3, fibronectin 1, and fibrillin 2. With the current emergence of genetic research, researchers can develop a method to fix these mutated genes.